tSchedule 

(VERSION 14 October 2011)

Monday 24 October 2011 

       Tutorials - parallel presentations, seperate rooms, TBA

8:00 am Registration and Coffee

Location: Odeum, second floor Campus Center, WPI

8:20am Welcome and Opening Remarks

8:40-10:20am 1st Tutorial Session (3 separate tutorials, 3 separate locations)

Surface Texture Measurement – Basic Principles and Practice:
Part 1 - Surface texture characterization

Prof. Richard Leach, Principal Research Scientist, Engineering Measurement Division, National Physical Laboratory, UK
- please consider attending the second tutorial by Prof. Leach at 1:10 pm

Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopes for Metrology: Using the Olympus LEXT 4000 for aerial surface measurement and imaging
 – individual hands-on sessions can be scheduled throughout the two days
Dr. Adrian A Evans, Research Associate, AGES, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, UK

Fast 3D Profilometry using GelSight
M. Kimo Johnson, Ph.D., GelSight, Inc.

10:20am Break and Exhibits and Posters

10:40am-12:20pm 2nd Tutorial Session (3 separate tutorials, 3 separate locations)

Preparation and cleaning of raw acquisition files with MountainsMap?
François Blateyron, Digital Surf, Besançon, France

Finite Element Modeling for Metrologists
Prof. Mary Kathryn Thompson, KAIST, Korea & John M. Thompson, Consulting Engineer

Undergraduate Research in the 21st Century: Designing Collaborative Projects between Archaeology and Material Science

Prof. James Stemp, Dept. of Anthropology, Keene State College, Keene, New Hampshire, USA

12:20pm Lunch and Exhibits and Posters

1:10-2:50pm 3rd Tutorial Session (3 separate tutorials, 3 separate locations)

Surface Texture Measurement – Basic Principles and Practice:
Part 2 – Measurement and calibration

Prof. Richard Leach, Principal Research Scientist, Engineering Measurement Division, National Physical Laboratory, UK
- Prof. Leach requests that people who attend this tutorial will have also have attended the first one he gives in at 8:40 in the morning

Application of Multivariate Statistical Analysis to Surface Metrology: Pattern Recognition for Forensic Firearms and Tool Mark Analysis
Prof. Nicholas D. K. Petraco, John Jay College of Criminal Justice

Using Statistics to Analyze Surface Measurements
Prof. Marnie Ham, University of Ontario Institute of Ontario, Oshawa, Ontario, Canada

2:50pm Break and Exhibits and posters

3:10-4:50pm 4th Tutorial Session (3 separate tutorials, 3 separate locations)

Areal (3D) Profilometry Measurements:  Relating Data to Performance - So What?
Jack Clark,  Surface Analytics, LLC, Masonville, Colorado and Colorado State University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA

Interferometric Surface Metrology
Dr. Peter de Groot, Director of R&D, Zygo Corporation, Middlefield, Connecticut, USA

Parameter selection using ISO 25178, 12781, motif, furrow, and texture direction analysis
Dr. Ellen Schulz, University of Hamburg, Biocenter Grindel and Zoological Museum, Hamburg, Germany

________________________________________________
Monday evening - WPI campus center

5:00-7:00pm  Welcome reception with Exhibits and Posters

Address by honorary co-chair Alex Tabenkin

 Music by WPI's Medwin String Ensemble

7:00-9:30pm continuing in the campus center with Dinner and Music by WPI's Jazz Ensemble

________________________________________________

Tuesday 25 October 2011

Tutorials - parallel presentations, seperate rooms, TBA

8:00am Registration and Coffee

Odeum, second floor Campus Center, WPI

8:40-10:20am 5th Tutorial Session (3 separate tutorials, 3 separate locations)

Visual and Emotional Surfaces: Surface Engineering for Product Development
Prof. B.-G. Rosén, The Functional Surfaces Research Group at Halmstad and Chalmers Universities, Sweden

Multiscale Surface Characterization of Manufacturing Signatures in Nano/Micro Functinalised Products
Prof. Mohamed El Mansori, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, France

Advanced Optical Surface Characterization on Sculptured Surfaces and Small Patches with Varying Reflection Properties
Dr. Stefan Scherer, Geschäftsführer / CEO, Alicona Imaging GmbH , Grambach/Graz - Austria

10:20am Break and Exhibits and Posters

10:40am-12:20pm 6th Tutorial Session (2 separate tutorials, 2 separate locations)

The Migration of Critical Industrial Measurements to 3D Microscopy
Dr. Erik Novak, Director of Technology Development, Bruker Corporation

Using a Sliding Band-pass Filter to Decompose Measured Surfaces by Spatial Wavelengths
Chukwunomso Agunwamba, MS, & Dr. Joyce Hyde, visiting scientist, Surface Metrology Lab, WPI, USA

Preparation and cleaning of raw acquisition files with MountainsMap?
François Blateyron, Digital Surf, Besançon, France

12:20 pm Lunch and Exhibits and Posters

1:10-2:50pm 7th Tutorial Session (2 separate tutorials, 2 separate locations)

Multi-scale Decomposition of Engineered Surfaces: Wavelet Transform & Mathematical Morphology
Prof. H. Zahouani, Laboratory of Tribology and Dynamics of Systems, University of Lyon - ENISE – ECL

Using stylus instruments to solve engineering roughness problems
T. R. Thomas, Functional Surfaces Research Group, Sektion för Ekonomi och Teknik
Halmstad University, S-30118 Halmstad, Sweden

Fast 3D Profilometry using GelSight
M. Kimo Johnson, Ph.D., GelSight, Inc.

2:50 pm Break and Exhibits and posters

3:10-4:50pm 8th Tutorial Session (3 separate tutorials, 3 separate locations)

Quantifying Dental Microwear Surface Textures
Prof. Robert S. Scott, Department of Anthropology and Center for Human Evolutionary Studies, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Area-scale Analysis of Surface Topographies and Scale-based Methods for Correlation with and Discrimination of Surface Topographies
Prof. Christopher A. Brown, Mechanical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, USA

Uncertainty in Surface Metrology

Dr. Theodore Vorburger, NIST, USA
__________________________________________________________

Tuesday evening
ASME B46 CLASSIFICATION AND DESIGNATION OF SURFACE QUALITIES
all are welcome

Location: Odeum, second floor Campus Center, WPI

5:00 - 6:00 ASME B46 Welcome Reception, Campus Center, Odeum

6:00 - 9:00 ASME B46 Project Team Meetings and working dinner 

6:00 - 7:00  PT 48  Future Visions (Christopher Brown Chair), to discuss: role of national standard organizations and their relation to ISO, specific needs for standard development

7:00 - 8:00 PT 35 Communications

8:00 - 9:00 in parallel:
    PT 49 Acceptance Criteria
    PT 50 Verification of Stylus Tip Radius

9:00 - 10:00 Fluids Lab - pub and open mike

(agendas in preparation...)
________________________________________________

Wednesday 26 October 2011

Location: Odeum, second floor Campus Center, WPI

8:00am to 2:00pm ASME B468:00 - 10:00 PT 42 Gage Capabilities (serving: fruit, yogurt & pasteries)
10:00 - 11:00 ISO Round Table and B46 Main Committee
(noon - 1:00 working lunch)
11:00am - 2:00pm

2:00pm - 8:00pm ASME H213
________________________________________________

Thursday 27 October 2011
Location: Kaven Hall 204
ASME H213 
________________________________________________



Advanced Optical Surface Characterization on Sculptured Surfaces and Small Patches with Varying Reflection Properties
Dr. Stefan Scherer, Geschäftsführer / CEO, Alicona Imaging GmbH , Grambach/Graz - Austria
     Conventional surface characterization mostly requires the surface to be measured being relatively flat. Steep slopes or complicated forms are hardly measurable. Additionally changes in the material itself or in the reflection properties lead to measurement issues. The tutorial outlines these difficulties and show the challenge compared to conventional tactile surface characterization. The optical 3d surface measurement technology of focus variation is introduced and it is explained why this technology is capable of handling the described challenges. Various practical examples are given in the fields of, for example, medical implants, automotive and aerospace industries, as well as paper manufacturing.

     

Application of Multivariate Statistical Analysis to Surface Metrology: Pattern Recognition for Forensic Firearms and Tool Mark Analysis
Nicholas D. K. Petraco, John Jay College of Criminal Justice
This tutorial will introduce several multivariate statistical techniques/data-mining methods that can be applied to digital representations of microscopic surfaces. Real surface data, of interest to forensic firearms and tool mark examiners, will be used to illustrate all concepts. Statistical topics covered will be:
    * principal component analysis (PCA)
    * canonical variate analysis (CVA)
    * partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA)
    * support vector machines (SVM)
    * classification trees (CART)
Measures of confidence in the computational discrimination results will also be introduced and illustrated. The methods discussed are of particular importance to forensic applications of statistical surface metrology. They include:
    * error rate estimation via resampling (cross validation and bootstrapping)
    * receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis
    * conformal prediction theory (CPT)
    * non-parametric local false discovery (lfdr) methods (i.e. “positive fallacy” rates)
The open-source statistical analysis suite, R will be discussed so that participants can apply the methods on their own. Unfortunately there will not be enough time during the tutorial to install R and run the methods. However, interested participants are encouraged to bring a laptop and any data they may be interested in analyzing. (Binary files for surfaces are fine if the participant knows the format or has a copy of Digital Surf-Mountains. Excel and CSV files are also fine.) The lecturer will be happy to help get interested participants up and running after the workshop, as time permits.


Areal (3D) Profilometry Measurements:  Relating Data to Performance - So What?
Jack Clark,  Surface Analytics, LLC, Masonville, Colorado and Colorado State University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
It is a special engineer that can synthesize all the variables controlling part function.  One must be knowledgeable of or have access to knowledge that is comprehensive enough to identify and weigh the uncertainties that control part and, therefore, assembly function.  Components work in unison and must be gauged to a standard that utilized the knowledge of surface and form interactions.  The metrology is the key that links component design and function.  Without a watchful, gauging eye, there is no process control.
     This tutorial will cite a number of manufacturing case histories that exemplify the need to incorporate areal measurement techniques to fully gauge part/assembly function.  One must combine process, metrology and part/assembly function knowledge to provide a manufacturing solution and reduce risk.  This tutorial will site case histories where design, production, and quality had to work together to finalize a functional manufacturing system that would perform to specification and beyond.



Area-scale Analysis of Surface Topographies and
Scale-based Methods for Correlation with and Discrimination of Surface Topographies
Prof. Christopher A. Brown, Mechanical Engineering, WPI, USA
     The first part of the tutorial is intended for researchers, software developers, engineers and scientists who would like to understand more about scale-sensitive fractal analysis, why it is important and how it is used.  In this tutorial the basics of area-scale analysis will be developed.  The broad relevance of area as a characterization parameter for surface topographies and its relation to slopes on the surface, fractal dimension and complexity will be reviewed.  The tiling algorithm that calculates the apparent area will be presented along with the details of  the calculation of relative areas.  The construction of the area-scale plots will be presented.  Sfrax software, developed and sold by Chris Brown, will be presented and available throughout the conference for trial use (www.surfract.com).   
    The second part of the tutorial is intended for researchers, engineers and scientists who would like to learn how to discriminate surfaces and to find correlations between processing and textures and between textures and performance.  Discrimination and correlation are at the basis of many scientific discoveries based on surface topographies in all branches of science.  Discrimination is the basis for quality control and correlation is the basis for optimization of process and product design in engineering. Scale-based methods look at the value of parameters calculated over a limited range of scales, i.e., band of spatial frequencies or wavelengths.  Area-scale analysis naturally lends itself to this by its use of relative areas to characterize topographies as a function of scale.  A sliding band pass filter method is also presented.  After determining the value of parameters as a function of scale statistical discrimination and regression analyses can be performed to discover the strength of correlations and to demonstrate the ability of parameters to discriminate.
 
Fast 3D Profilometry using GelSight
M. Kimo Johnson, Ph.D., GelSight, Inc
GelSight is a slab of clear elastomer covered with a reflective skin. While seemingly simple, this novel system is capable of measuring surface texture and shape at high resolutions. When pressed against a surface, the reflective skin conforms to the surface topography, effectively painting the surface with a controlled uniform reflectance. By controlling the material properties of the surface, GelSight allows for the precise measurement of surface geometry of any material. In this tutorial, I will present the core GelSight technology, describe several systems we have built and show a working demo of one of our systems. I will also show results from a variety of materials, representing applications from diverse industries.


Finite Element Modeling for Metrologists
Mary Kathryn Thompson, KAIST, Korea
John M. Thompson, Consulting Engineer
Although surface metrology is often used in manufacturing to verify that surface finishes and small scale geometries have been correctly fabricated, it is equally useful in the design of components and systems where the behavior is dominated by the surface. Numerical modeling techniques, like the finite element method, can be used to predict the performance of functional surfaces. It can also be used to propose alternative surface geometries or surface finishing techniques to improve that performance.
This tutorial will present some of the tools and techniques that we have developed for the incorporation of surface features in finite element models. In particular, we will discuss the use of surface metrology data vs. the creation of probabilistic surface topography. We will present methods that can be used to format surface metrology data for importation into a commercial finite element program (ANSYS) as well as methods to generate probabilistic surface arrays. We will demonstrate how to use this information to create top down and bottom up solid model geometry and how to create or modify the finite element model (nodes and elements) directly. Issues associated with setting up and solving finite element models associated with loads and boundary conditions will be addressed. We will show the types of results that can be expected from a finite element model and discuss how to interpret them. Finally, we will discuss the current challenges and limitations of these techniques and the future of surface modeling.
This tutorial is intended for a general audience. However, references with more detailed information for those wishing to adopt these techniques will also be provided.


Interferometric Surface Metrology
Dr. Peter de Groot, Director of R&D, Zygo Corporation, Middlefield, Connecticut, USA
We begin with a review of the theory of operation of interferometers generally and interference microscopes in particular, using language and visuals accessible to a broad audience.  A survey of instruments takes us to automated phase shifting systems and to coherence scanning interferometers—presently the most widely used microscope for general-purpose surface profiling on the microscope scale.  Armed with this background, we proceed to applications, best practice, data interpretation and presentation, supported by a gallery of examples including automotive parts, flat panel displays, data storage and medical devices, optics and semiconductors. This course enables you to describe the principles of interference microscopy, including its history and development,  determine when an interference microscope is the best solution to a metrology problem, and select an instrument, measurement mode and filtering option to get the job done.   The intended audience includes R&D scientists, process and quality control engineers, and measurement specialists from all applications areas requiring high-precision, high-resolution surface characterization.  The course material ranges from basic to complex, to provide both an overview and reference for further study.



Multi-scale Decomposition of Engineered Surfaces: Wavelet Transform & Mathematical Morphology
Prof H. Zahouani, Laboratory of Tribology and Dynamics of Systems, University of Lyon - ENISE - ECL
     This presentation brings a new vision on two approaches of multi-scale decomposition: i) wavelet transform as a mathematical microscope to identify the scales of manufacturing process  in a quantitative way, ii) multi-scale decomposition by mathematical morphology to assess the functionality of engineered surfaces in term of contact mechanics and tribology.
     1.    Philosophy of Wavelet Transform as a Quantitative Multi-Resolution Microscope
     The disadvantage of the short-time Fourier transform introduced as a basis function by Gabor, is that it is inadequate for the analysis of multi-scale signals due to its fixed resolution in the space and frequency domains. The solution is to have a flexible time-frequency resolution by trading resolution in time for resolution in frequency. That is, the window should narrow at high center frequencies to give better accuracy, and widen at low frequencies to give accurate frequency information. To assess the multiple-scale structures with reasonable accuracy, the representation also needs to have a flexible space-frequency resolution.
     The multi-resolution theory is a powerful tool to investigate multi-scale properties by decomposing the signal origin in two orthogonal planes, and by reconstructing the signal at different scales. In order to analyze the multi-scale properties of engineered surfaces, which are due to its fixed resolution in the space and frequency domains, the wavelet transform can be used to achieve flexible time-frequency resolution by trading resolution in time for resolution in frequency, where the basic functions are obtained from a single wavelet or mother wavelet   by translation and dilation (or compression). The methodology takes into account the full scale of decomposition without any cut-off and quantifies for each scale an arithmetic mean value of the amplitude of roughness and waviness.  The multi-scale quantification is presented as a histogram of the texture parameter from roughness to the limit wavelength of waviness. Thus, it is possible in many industrial systems of surface production to make use of this method to study the progress of some events which occurred in a system while that system was in operation.  The advantage of using the multi-scale process signature in this way is that the examination of components of a generated surface to detect the topological signatures, and especially signatures of the surface in the right scale, is an important part of quality assessment in manufacturing production. The multi-scale process signature is one powerful methodology that is helpful in understanding the mechanisms of the surface formation process, as well as, competing scale dependent effects.
     2.    Mathematical Morphology and Surface Functionality in Term of Contact Mechanics and Tribology
     The second multi-scale approach is based on morphological identification. This approach is similar to the methods set up in  geographic information systems that reproduce the topography of the earth from data provided by satellites. The method consists of the projection of an analysis grid on the relief that plays the part of the microscope lens. In line with geographical criteria defined by geographers, the geometrical layout of points present on the contour of the grid establish if the point at the center of the grid is a summit,  peak, crest, valley, plateau or a hollow. Each morphological type is coded by a special disposition inside the grid and by a threshold of tolerance. The analysis grid must scan each point of the reliefand then each point is classified in a family according to its typology by keeping its three spatial co-ordinates x, y, z. The association of three morphological elements (example: peak-valley-peak), is a basic definition of a local motif.  The distribution of the scales of motif (depth and width) and their orientation can be represented as a 3D morphological tree. The multi-resolution aspect of a morphological tree helps to quantify the effect of the process in terms of scale and anisotropy.
     The role of these morphological elements of engineered surfaces will be illustrated by examples of contact mechanics and tribology.

 
Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopes for Metrology: Using the Olympus LEXT 4000 for aerial surface measurement and imaging
This tutorial is designed to allow delegates to gain some experience and understanding of the application laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) to study material surfaces. A briefing of the instrument and its operation and its theoretical underpinnings will be given followed by a demonstration of the LSCM’s ability to produce high magnification images and surface data. Delegates will then have the opportunity to study their own samples (or an interesting sample from the provided collection).
    Delegates are encouraged to bring their own samples – no sample preparation is needed and samples can be up to 10 cm thick. For further information in the instrument that will be used for this demonstration visit:
http://www.olympus.co.uk/microscopy/26_LEXT_OLS4000.htm


Multiscale Surface Characterization of Manufacturing Signatures in Nano/Micro Functinalised Products
Prof. Mohamed El Mansori, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, France
     One way of achieving functional control of manufactured parts is to engineer their surface through artificial texturing and structuring. Manufacturers are searching for processing technologies that enable industrial products to achieve the designed functionalities. The objective of this tutorial is to present a robust methodology that explores the required surface characteristics of industrial parts, based on the premise that an intimate connection exists between the mechanisms that govern their processing technologies during manufacturing stages and the multi-scale modification of topographical signatures formed as a result of those mechanisms. These multi-scale modifications of surface structure are connected to the process conditions that the surface has undergone during manufacture, and, in turn, dominate the functional characteristics of the surface. The implementation of this multiscale approach within a mass production environment allows correlation of the functional quality of the designed surface, within tolerance, and the process of its generation. This implementation consists of computing the multi-scale modifications of the topographical signature, which highlight the essential changes of the surface structure produced on the original surface after the stages of honing. Different industrial applications will demonstrate how this multiscale approach is useful and powerful. A special focus will be to show its ability to respond in a predictable fashion to changes in process variables during manufacturing.


Parameter selection using ISO 25178, 12781, motif, furrow, and texture direction analysis
Dr. Ellen Schulz, University of Hamburg, Biocenter Grindel and Zoological Museum, Hamburg, Germany
This tutorial is intended for researchers and scientists who would like to learn more about sampling design, sampling preparation, and surface measurement selection, especially those working in non-engineering fields, like, Anthropology, Archeology, Biology, and Paleontology. Parameters of ISO 25178, 12781, motif, furrow, and texture direction analysis are calculated using Mountains Map. Advanced statistical analyses for non-normal, heterogeneous data are discussed. Dental area surface texture analysis is demonstrated. The main focus is set on exploring significance, relevance and meaning of parameters describing complex surface textures.


Preparation and cleaning of raw acquisition files with MountainsMap?
François Blateyron, Digital Surf, Besançon, France
This tutorial is intended for MountainsMap users. It shows several practical examples that demonstrate how to improve raw data files acquired with optical microscopes (confocal / OIM) and with scanning probe microscopes (AFM / STM).
     The following questions will be answered: What are the main sources of errors from the instrument? How to clean data files? How to filter non-measured points? How to remove outliers? How to correct specific instrument defects? How to prepare data for metrological analysis? How to apply these treatments automatically? How to optimize pictures for publications?
     Before applying metrological analyses (filters, data extraction, parameters), users must ensure that the data file is clean and appropriate for further analysis. However, these cleaning operations must not be too severe otherwise they might damage metrological results. The understanding of instrument settings and limitations allows the optimal selection of pre-treatments and ensures accuracy and repeatability of metrological results.


Quantifying Dental Microwear Surface Textures

Robert S. Scott, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Anthropology and Center for Human Evolutionary Studies, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
This tutorial is intended to summarize the methods developed to quantify dental microwear surface textures and will focus particularly on complexity and anisotropy measures. Particular attention will be on issues that result from surfaces that are generated by biological, chaotic, or unpredictable processes and the problems in data analysis that arise with such surfaces.

Surface Texture Measurement – Basic Principles and Practice:

Part 1 - Surface texture characterisation
Prof. Richard Leach, Principal Research Scientist, Engineering Measurement Division, National Physical Laboratory, UK
This part of the course will introduce the basic concepts required for the analysis of surface topography. Surface profile and areal characterisation are covered along with filtering and the ISO parameters. Throughout the course good practice guidance will be given along with the default rules and procedures that need to be applied. Case studies are given to highlight important points.


Surface Texture Measurement – Basic Principles and Practice:
Part 2 – Measurement and calibration
Prof. Richard Leach, Principal Research Scientist, Engineering Measurement Division, National Physical Laboratory, UK
This part will introduce the basic concepts involved in the measurement of surface topography. Contact and non-contact instruments will be covered in detail along with their error sources. Profile and areal calibration with be covered in detail including artefacts, methods and uncertainties.

The migration of critical industrial measurements to 3D microscopy
Dr. Erik Novak, Director of Technology Development, Bruker Corporation
Most of the world’s surface standards are written around two-dimensional, stylus based measurements.  Other surface standards, such as RMA RMA-OS-1-1 rev. 2004 which governs the measurement of sealing surfaces, only indirectly measure the surface, in this case via examining the motion of a string as a shaft is turned.  Many industries, such as the photovoltaic and LED industries, understand there is a relationship between surface texture and function, but have not been able to quantify those relationships using traditional techniques.
     The additional capability provided by 3D microscopic techniques often provide substantially different data than 2D or other non-imaging techniques.  In some cases, such as for photovoltaic efficiency the additional analyses show direct correlation of surface parameters to product function.  In other cases, such as for lead angle determination on seals, sensitivity is provided by 3D techniques that cannot be provided by existing standards, and gage capable results are achievable for the first time.  This in turn leads to further research into the surfaces in question and their relationship to the desired function.
     This tutorial will explore the move from two-dimensional to three-dimensional metrology in a variety of industries, highlighting the opportunities and challenges such migrations present for both those industries and the manufacturers of metrology systems.  Correlation of results between systems will be shown and the methodology by which new, enhanced metrology can be efficiently adopted without disruption of existing manufacturing.

Uncertainty in Surface Metrology
T.V. Vorburger, T.B. Renegar, A. Zheng, and J. Song, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA
We begin with a brief summary of the International System of Units and emphasize the unit of length, the meter.  We then introduce measurement uncertainty and emphasize concepts related to uncertainty budgeting from the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM) and Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM). We conclude by applying uncertainty budgets to a few length related measurands in the field of surface texture measurement: step height, roughness average, and spatial wavelength.  Specifically, we discuss uncertainty budgets for these quantities developed for measurements at NIST. 


Undergraduate Research in the 21st Century: Designing Collaborative Projects between Archaeology and Material Science
Prof. James Stemp, Department of Anthropology, Keene State College, Keene, New Hampshire, USA
This tutorial is intended as an instructional seminar on designing a collaborative research project involving undergraduate students that crosses the disciplines of social science and engineering science. It focuses on the steps necessary for attracting and encouraging student participation, establishing research relationships, determining research goals, appropriate allocation of tasks, and bringing collaborative research projects to a successful conclusion that benefits the parties involved. One clear concern for prospective collaborators is deciding the appropriate roles for undergraduate researchers. Another important consideration is that research partners from different backgrounds typically have various objectives that are specific to their discipline, which may or may not be similar to those of the researchers with whom they are collaborating. Clearly spelling out what you hope to gain from a collaboration of this type is an important first step and may help to define the nature of the research project well before collaborators commits themselves completely. As a case study, the collaboration between the Surface Metrology and Archaeological Research Technologies Project in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at Keene State College, Keene, New Hampshire and the Surface Metrology Laboratory in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Massachusetts, is presented to demonstrate successes that may be achieved, as well as some of the issues and obstacles that may need to be overcome. The joint project shared by these two partnering institutions has resulted in numerous national and international conference papers and posters, in addition to published papers in scholarly journals in both archaeology and materials science involving undergraduate students. This case study discusses the use of cutting edge micro/nanotechnology measurement systems and scale-sensitive fractal analyses to document and discriminate used surfaces on stone tools.



Using a Sliding Band-pass Filter to Decompose Measured Surfaces by Spatial Wavelengths
Chukwunomso Agunwamba, MS, Surface Metrology Lab, WPI, USA
Dr. Joyce Hyde, visiting scientist, Surface Metrology Lab, WPI, USA
     This tutorial is intended for people who would like to use the new, sliding band pass filter The filter was developed at WPI as part of Chukwunomso's MS thesis in mathematics.   It has been used to find strong correlations between friction of sheet metal and dies over narrow spatial frequency ranges at appropriately fine scales using ordinary height parameters.  The program runs in Matlab.  Attendees will get experience using the program to decompose measured surfaces into data sets representing the measured surface over narrow ranges of frequencies.  The wavelength-decomposed data sets from the measured surfaces can be used to improve the ability to discriminate surfaces and to find correlations between surfaces and processing or performance.


Using Statistics to Analyze Surface Measurements
Prof. Marnie Ham, University of Ontario Institute of Ontario, Oshawa, Ontario, Canada
The objective of this tutorial is to present methods of applying statistical techniques for determining significant differences in surface topography, both using small data sets and large data sets.  It is intended to assist researchers and engineers in determining how to use statistics  to determine if there is a measurable difference in the surfaces. The tutorial will include a basic review of statistics (i.e., normal vs non-normal, continuous vs discrete, mean, median, etc.), and the application of statistics to surface topography. We will look at how statistics have been used in surface research, including sp,e  common mistakes and pitfalls.  We will also look at issues that have arisen through the improper use of, and lack of, statistics


Using stylus instruments to solve engineering roughness problems
T. R. Thomas, Functional Surfaces Research Group, Sektion för Ekonomi och Teknik, Halmstad University, S-30118 Halmstad, Sweden
Performance of roughness measuring instruments is best compared by using Stedman diagrams.  These make clear why the majority of roughness measurements for inspection and quality control in engineering industry are still made with stylus instruments.  The design and construction of these instruments is described and compared with their predecessors, and their advantages, limitations and sources of error are discussed.  The use of computers with modern stylus instruments raises problems of signal conditioning such as analogue-to-digital conversion and form and waviness removal.  The former requires control of quantisation and aliasing, while the latter needs the design and implementation of specialised filters such as the robust Gaussian and valley removal filters.  Characterisation of profile measurements includes both amplitude and texture parameters; functions such as probability distributions, autocorrelation functions and power spectra are also sometimes used, but their drawbacks need to be realised.  Special amplitude parameters have been developed to describe the multiprocess surfaces now in common use.  Roughness parameter specification in standards raises questions of sampling robustness.  Applications are illustrated by case histories from fluid dynamics, heat transfer and automotive engineering.


VISUAL and EMOTIONAL SURFACES: Surface Engineering for Product Development
Professor B.-G. Rosén, The Functional Surfaces Research Group at Halmstad and Chalmers Universities, Sweden
     The aim with the workshop is to demonstrate the metrology framework linking measurable- and un-measurable properties of product surfaces to customer “feeling” /experience as exemplified by a set of industrial applications.
     The customers’ first apprehension of a product and the creation of desire is a very complex but tempting process to learn to master. New surface treatments, material developments, manufacturing processes, improved quality control procedures and advanced metrology instrumentation create a possibility to further develop competitiveness by the selection and further the manufacturing of “optimal” surface features” to a product.  The product appearance plays an important role in the judgement of a product, and the surface is, among form, colour, and material of greatest importance of creating a whole of a product.
     This tutorial address this mentioned “partly possible” and “to a great extent impossible” task and is a novel approach to develop and join a traditional manufacturing physical metrology frame-work with the design departments’ qualitative grading of apprehended impressions and “feelings” of products with varying surface properties.
     The results based on three case studies show that the usage of the "Kansei" method leads to an improved knowledge about surface features in relation to the customers demand as exemplified with “the sauna-“, “the roof-rack-” and “the building exterior” surface cases made in co-operation with Halmstad-, Chalmers and Jönköping University in Sweden, University of Kansas in the USA and leading industrial surface producers from both countries








Bio-sketches for the presenters

François Blateyron has been working in the field of surface texture analysis for twenty years. Expert in the development of metrology algorithms and surface analysis solutions, he has been also an active member of standardization committees (ISO TC213) and project leader for several documents included in the ISO 25178 standard. He is now COO of Digital Surf, France, developer of Mountains Technology®, the industry-standard surface imaging and analysis solution used by leading instrument manufacturers worldwide.

Jack Clark is a senior manager, lecturer, and graduate engineer with over thirty years of experience in systems development, surface finishing and mechanical design.  He has broad knowledge in form and surface metrology instrument design, including developments on interferometric, SEM, and other high resolution surface analysis devices. He has applied this metrology experience to automotive engine design, computer imaging, and process automation. Mr. Clark has owned businesses and licensed technology that enhances part functionality, improves first pass acceptance, and reduces production and warrantee costs.
His background in Precision Machining began with professional formula racing and modifying BMW engines with novel finishing techniques that developed into owning and operating consulting and service businesses. He is actively participating on standards committees (ASME B46, ISO) producing new areal (3 D) and functional definitions and callouts.  He currently operates a consulting service, Surface Analytics, LLC, that is dedicated to elevating Manufacturing’s understanding and implementation of metrology that will result in rapid process development, continuing process control and predictable part functionally.

 
Peter de Groot is Director of Research and Development at ZYGO, specializing in optical instrumentation invention and design.  ZYGO designs, develops, and manufactures optical metrology solutions that provide process control for surface shape, roughness, material characteristics, film thickness and stage positioning. Peter has authored 120 technical papers and is an inventor for 106 US patents.  He is an SPIE Fellow and active member of the Applied Optics Community.

Mohamed El Mansori is a Full Professor in the Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering at the Arts et Métiers ParisTech. He received his B.Sc. in Physics from the University of Hassan II in 1993 (Morocco), and his Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine in 1997 at Nancy, France. He served also as a postdoctoral appointee at Center for Advanced Friction Studies in The Southern Illinois University, USA.  He works at the interface of thermo-mechanics, materials, and physics to conduct research into mechanical and tribological performances of both metallic and composites components, when using various manufacturing processes. He is actually the Director of the LMPF Laboratory (www.lmpf.net). Prior to his current assignment, he has worked as a Research Member in the ERMES Group (Nancy – France) for five years on tribological behavior of many materials, especially in the application field of electrical and magnetised contacts.   He has taught several invited short courses on tribology in multiscale manufacturing process, and is the author of over 70 peer-reviewed journal publications.

Adrian A. Evans is a Post-Doctoral Research Associate in the School of Applied Sciences at the University of Bradford in the United Kingdom and is co-director of the Lithic Microwear Research Laboratory. Adrian’s main areas of research are the development of advanced methods in microscopy for applications in archaeology, especially in stone tool use-wear analysis and the study of human evolution and social change through the palaeolithic. His BSc MSc and PhD are all from the University of Bradford and have all focused on the development of quantitative methods in archaeological science. He has pioneered the use of laser scanning confocal microscopy in archaeology and has studied material, aging between 2000 to 1 million years old, from Brazil, South Africa, Italy, and the UK. Adrian’s research on quantification in lithic microwear analysis has focused on the analysis of worn surfaces using both trace element chemistry and texture analysis and his research using laser scanning confocal microscopy has identified a method that could see the full quantification of the method.

Dr. Marnie Ham is an Assistant Professor of Engineering at University of Ontario Institute of Ontario, Oshawa, Ontario, Canada. She is a graduate of GMI Engineering & Management Institute (Flint, Mi) and Queen’s University. She is a Professional Engineer in the Province of Ontario, since 1999. Dr Ham holds a Black Belt in Six Sigma.
Dr. Ham has held engineering positions at: Ford Motor Company of Canada Limited, Bombardier Aerospace, MeadWestvaco, and United Parcel Service of Canada. She is an adjunct professor at Queen’s University and an affiliate professor to Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
Her research interests are in: Asymmetric Incremental Sheet Forming (AISF), Surface Texture and Quality, Life Cycle Engineering (LCE), Applied Statistics, and Statistical Quality Control. Her research program has been funded by NSERC, OCE, and Nelson Industries. Dr Ham’s research efforts focus on design, development and optimizing sheet metal manufacturing processes, especially AISF. AISF is a dieless sheet metal forming process, which allows users to provide customization within sheet metal parts.


Before leaving academia to lead GelSight, Inc., Micah Kimo Johnson was a postdoc, then Research Scientist, at MIT. During his postdoc, he worked with Professor Ted Adelson on the project that became GelSight. His research interests span computer vision and graphics, with an emphasis on image-based analysis of shape, illumination, color, and texture. In addition, he enjoys collaborating on interdisciplinary problems, such as art analysis, audio analysis, and music theory. He holds undergraduate degrees in Mathematics and Music Theory from the University of New Hampshire, an A.M. in Electro-Acoustic Music from Dartmouth College, and a Ph.D. in Computer Science from Dartmouth College.

Professor Richard Leach is a Principal Research Scientist in the Engineering Measurement Division at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the UK. Richard is also a visiting professor of the Wolfson School for Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University. He obtained a BSc in Applied Physics from Kingston University in 1989, an MSc in Measurement Systems from Brunel University in 1994 and a PhD in Surface Metrology from University of Warwick in 2000. He has been with NPL since 1990 and has current research interests in surface topography measurement, micro-coordinate metrology and x-ray computed tomography. Richard is on the Council of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, the European Board of MANCEF, the Institute of Nanotechnology Advisory Board, the International Committee of Instrumentation and Measurement and several international standards committees. He has over 140 publications in the field of nanometrology and has published two textbooks on the subject. He lectures at Brunel and Nottingham universities. Richard is a Fellow of the Institute of Physics and the Institute of Nanotechnology.

Dr. Erik Novak is Director of Technology Development at Bruker Nano Surfaces Division (formerly Wyko Corporation and Veeco Metrology Group).  Bruker Nano Surfaces Division designs and produces three-dimensional optical microscopes, stylus profilers, and atomic force microscopes to serve both research and production applications.  He has been working in the field of metrology field for more than 18 years and has received several R&D 100 awards, numerous patents, and has more than fifty publications and book chapters in the field of precision measurement of surfaces and other key characteristics of industrial components.

Nicholas D. K. Petraco earned a bachelors degree in chemistry from Colgate University in 1998 and a doctorate in quantum chemistry from the University of Georgia in 2002. He was a postdoctoral fellow in applied mathematics at the University of Waterloo from 2002-2004, after which time he was appointed to the faculty of John Jay College of Criminal Justice and The Graduate Center, City University of New York. His current research interests are in the application of statistical pattern recognition methods to physical evidence, tool marks in particular. He is also interested in the general application of mathematics and computers to trace evidence analysis problems in forensic science. Nick belongs to the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) and the Northeastern Association of Forensic Scientists (NEAFS).

Stefan Scherer is CEO and founder of Alicona, manufacturing high resolution optical 3D surface metrology equipment. He holds a Masters degree in Physics and a PhD in computer science. During his time as an Assistant Professor at Graz University of Technology he was leading a group specialized in optical 3D metrology. After founding Alicona together with his partner Manfred Prantl, he focused on developing the technology of focus variation towards a  technology, accepted world-wide, for high resolution surface metrology. Currently the technology is successfully applied to surface characterization as well as micro CMM applications. Alicona is contributing in various international committees such as ISO.

Dr. Ellen Schulz, Post-doctoral fellow of the German Research Foundation
Ellen Schulz is working on feeding ecology and functional morphology of herbivorous ungulates in space and time. She graduated from Greifswald University with a Diploma in zoology, ecology and palaeontology and a PhD from Hamburg University in zoology focused on feeding behaviour, age and sexual segregation of recent and fossil equids worldwide. Ellen Schulz is involved in the research group 771 (German Research Foundation) applying industrial 3D surface analyses on occlusal tooth surfaces.

 W. James Stemp is an Associate Professor in the Sociology and Anthropology Department at Keene State College in New Hampshire and Director of the Surface Metrology and Archaeological Research Technologies Project. James’ main areas of research focus on chipped stone tool technology in complex societies, design theory, lithic use-wear analysis, ancient socio-economy and trade, and the Maya. He earned his Honours B.A. from the University of Toronto and his Master’s degree from Oxford University. James completed his Ph.D. at McGill University in Montreal in 2000. He has analyzed stone tools from a number of ancient Maya sites, including Baking Pot, Cahal Pech, Marco Gonzalez, Minanha, Pook’s Hill, and San Pedro in Belize, and from caves and rockshelters in Western Belize (Actun Tunichil Mucnal, Actun Halal, Actun Chapat, Actun Uayazba Kab, Stela Cave, Caves Branch Rockshelter, and Deep Valley Rockshelter). Much of his recent research focuses on the development of a method to quantitatively document and discriminate use-wear on experimentally produced stone tools using LSCM and scale-sensitive fractal analysis. As this research progresses, James plans to apply the technique to stone tools recovered from archaeological excavations in order to determine tool function and reconstruct patterns of human tool use behavior in the past.

Tom Thomas graduated in physics and chemistry from the University of Wales at Cardiff in 1962, obtained a master's degree in applied physics from the University of Wales Institute of Science & Technology in Cardiff in 1965 and a doctorate in mechanical engineering from the University of Wales at Swansea in 1968.   After a year working in an industrial research laboratory in the United States, he returned to a postdoctoral fellowship at Swansea.   In 1971 he moved to Teesside Polytechnic in Middlesbrough (now the University of Teesside) where he became Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Metallurgy in 1979.   In 1986 he was awarded a higher doctorate.   In 1989 he became first Director of the Teesside Metrology Centre, an accredited calibration laboratory.   He has been Emeritus Professor since 1993, and in 1997/98 he was visiting Jubilee Professor at Chalmers University in Sweden.   He is now an independent consultant and a visiting professor at Halmstad University in Sweden.
Professor Thomas is the author or co-author of several textbooks and over 100 technical articles and conference papers, mostly on engineering metrology with particular reference to rough surfaces and their tribology, and is the co-founder of a series of international conferences on surface roughness.   He is a chartered engineer and chartered physicist, and a Fellow of the Institute of Physics, the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and the Institution of Electrical Engineers.

Mary Kathryn Thompson is an Associate Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. She is the director of the KAIST Laboratory for Innovative Design and Engineering Analysis where she is pioneering finite element modeling of surface phenomena. She also holds joint appointments in the Mechanical Engineering, Ocean Systems Engineering, and Industrial Design Departments at KAIST. Prof. Thompson earned her BS, MS, and PhD in Mechanical Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Rob Scott received his Ph.D. in Anthropology from the University of Texas at Austin in 2004. His research is united by an interest in environmental influences on hominid evolution. Previous work includes a strong quantitative and analytic program in evolutionary morphology and paleoanthropology including museum studies of fossil species, a record of fieldwork as part of international collaborations in Turkey, Hungary, and China, finite element modeling of the human tibia, and extensive work reconstructing ancient environments relevant to the evolution of the human lineage. Scott is the co-developer of a new repeatable method for quantifying primate and hominid dental microwear in three dimensions. This method has provided new insights into the diet of South African early hominins suggesting the importance of fallback food exploitation and was published in the journal Nature in 2005. Scott has a strong focus on late Miocene hominid paleoenvironments in Western Eurasia and is a leading expert in the application of the ecomorphology of fossil bovids and equids in the reconstruction of ancient environments.

John M. Thompson is a Professor in the Department of Applied Engineering and Technology at the California University of Pennsylvania.  He is the coordinator of the Technology Management program and the University liaison for the Pennsylvania Nanofabrication Manufacturing Technology consortium. Prof. Thompson has an active engineering consulting practice, including over 20 years with ANSYS, Inc. and is a leading expert on the use of ANSYS user programmable features. Prof. Thompson earned his BS, MS, and PhD in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Pittsburgh.

Theodore Vorburger is a Guest Researcher and Former Group Leader of the Surface and Microform Metrology Group in the Precision Engineering Division at the National Institute of Standards and Technology.  This group is responsible for surface roughness and step height calibrations, which underpin the U.S. measurement system for surface finish, and for traceable linewidth measurements using critical dimension atomic force microscopes. Ted is co-leader of a project to develop standard bullets and standard casings for forensics laboratories.  He has also led the development of a calibrated atomic force microscope for calibrations of surface nano-scale length specimens, the development of atom-based step height standards for calibration of atomic force microscopes, and the development of a light scattering system for measuring surface roughness, and has collaborated in the development of the world’s first sinusoidal-roughness Standard Reference Materials.  He is a member and former Chair of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Standards Committee B46 on the Classification and Designation of Surface Qualities and a Subject Matter Expert for the equivalent Working Group under the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).  Ted has been working in Surface Metrology since 1976 and is the author or co-author of more than 200 publications in the fields of surface metrology, nanometrology, surface physics, atomic physics, chemical physics, and automated measurements. Between March 2007 and April 2008, Ted worked on detail as Acting Deputy Director of the Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, a new organizational unit of NIST. He holds a B.S. degree from Manhattan College and an M.S. and Ph.D. from Yale University, all in Physics.

Hassan Zahouani is a full Professor in the Laboratory of Tribology and Dynamic of Systems (CNRS - UMR 5513).  His earned Ph.D. in Engineering Sciences from the Franche - Comté University - Besançon in 1989. He obtained the habilitation of direction of research from the University of Lyon in 1997.   He lead the team "Topography and Abrasion" 1997-2004, and leads the team: "Mechanics of Materials and Manufacturing Engineering" since 2005.  He created Toposurf software, developed specifically for the characterization of surface topography.  It guided the development of the multi-scale approaches by continuous wavelet transform and mathematical morphology within the laboratory LTDS since 1991.  His main activities concern the problems of interfaces, contact mechanics, friction and sound, and the effect of the multi-scale characteristics of surface topography in tribology. These last years the program initiated the development of bio-engineering of the and its ageing, and the engineering of tactile perception. He has been the President of the French Society of Skin Engineering and Imaging since 1999.

Christopher A. Brown, is a professor or Mechanical Engineering  at  Worcester Polytechnic Institute,  in Worcester, Massachusetts.  http://www.me.wpi.edu/People/Brown/.  Chris, with his students and other collaborators, has published over a hundred articles on surfaces and surface metrology and has a patent on a fractal method for characterizing surface textures. Chris Brown has been on the WPI faculty since 1989. His doctoral work was on machining at the University of Vermont.  He also worked on external fixation, scoliosis, and ski injuries.  At the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and Atlas Copco he worked on surfaces and manufacturing processes.  He also develops software for surface texture analysis www.surfract.com.  Brown is the chair of the US standards committee for surface texture, director of WPI’s Surface Metrology Lab www.me.wpi.edu/Research/SurfMet/.  Brown was chair of the 1st and 2nd International Conferences on Surface Metrology www.surfacemetrology.org.