PROF. BROWN’S PUBLICATIONS

Peer-Reviewed Journals

  1. Bartkowiak, T., Berglund, J. and Brown, C.A., 2020. Multiscale Characterizations of Surface Anisotropies. Materials, 13(13), p.3028.
  2. Brown C.A., Haitjema H. (2020) Multiscale Surface Analysis. In: The International Academy for Production Engineering, Chatti S., Tolio T. (eds) CIRP Encyclopedia of Production Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
  3. Lemesle, J., Robache, F., Le Goic, G., Mansouri, A., Brown, C.A. and Bigerelle, M., 2020. Surface Reflectance: an Optical Method for Multiscale Curvature Characterization of Wear on Ceramic–Metal Composites. Materials, 13(5), p.1024.
  4. Bartkowiak, T. and Brown, C.A., 2019. Multiscale 3D Curvature Analysis of Processed Surface Textures of Aluminum Alloy 6061 T6. Materials, 12(2), p.257.
  5. Bartkowiak, T., Berglund, J. and Brown, C.A., 2018. Establishing functional correlations between multiscale areal curvatures and coefficients of friction for machined surfaces. Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, 6(3), p.034002.
  6. Brown, C.A., Hansen, H.N., Jiang, X.J., Blateyron, F., Berglund, J., Senin, N., Bartkowiak, T., Dixon, B., Le Goïc, G., Quinsat, Y. and Stemp, W.J., 2018. Multiscale analyses and characterizations of surface topographies. CIRP annals, 67(2), pp.839-862.
  7. Rauch, E., Matt, D.T., Brown, C.A., Towner, W., Vickery, A. and Santiteerakul, S., 2018. Transfer of Industry 4.0 to Small and Medium Sized Enterprises. Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, 7, pp.63-71.
  8. Brown, C.A., 2018. Specification of surface roughness using axiomatic design and multiscale surface metrology. Procedia CIRP, 70, pp.7-12.
  9. Bartkowiak, T. and Brown, C.A., 2018. A Characterization of Process–Surface Texture Interactions in Micro-Electrical Discharge Machining Using Multiscale Curvature Tensor Analysis. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 140(2), p.021013.
  10. Quinsat, Y., Lartigue, C., Brown, C.A. and Hattali, L., 2018. Characterization of surface topography of 3D printed parts by multi-scale analysis. International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing (IJIDeM), 12(3), pp.1007-1014.
  11. Bartkowiak T. and Brown, C., 2016. Multi-scale curvature tensor analysis of machined surfaces. Archives of Mechanical Technology and Materials, 36, pp.1-7.
  12. Arman, S.D., Ungar, P.S., Brown, C.A., DeSantis, L.R., Schmidt, C. and Prideaux, G.J., 2016. Minimizing inter-microscope variability in dental microwear texture analysis. Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, 4(2), p.024007.
  13. Quinsat, Y., Lartigue, C., Brown, C.A. and Hattali, L., 2017. Multi-scale surface characterization in additive manufacturing using CT. Advances on Mechanics, Design Engineering and Manufacturing (pp. 271-280).
  14. Kevin Vessot, Paul Messier, Joyce M. Hyde, and Christopher A. Brown, (2015) Correlation between gloss reflectance and surface texture in photographic paper, Scanning 37/3, 204–217.
  15. Vulliez M, Gleason MA, Souto-Lebel A, Quinsat Y, Lartigue C, Kordell SP, Lemoine AC, Brown CA, (2014) Multi-scale curvature analysis and correlations with the fatigue limit on steel surfaces after milling, Procedia CIRP, 13: 308-313.
  16. J M Hyde, Lionel Cadet, J Montgomery, C A Brown, Multi-scale areal topographic analysis of surfaces created by micro-EDM and functional correlations with discharge energy, Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties. 10/2014; 2(4):045001.
  17. S. LAVERNHE, Y. QUINSAT, C. LARTIGUE, C. BROWN, (2014) Realistic simulation of surface defects in 5-axis milling using the measured geometry of the tool”, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 74 393-401  DOI: 10.1007/s00170-014-5689-7
  18. G LeGoic, CA Brown, H Favreliere, S Samper, F Formosa1 (2013) Outlier filtering: a new method for improving the quality of surface measurements, Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 015001 (13pp) doi:10.1088/0957-0233/24/1/015001
  19. S.A. Hacking, P. Boyraz, B.M. Powers, E. Sen-Gupta, W. Kucharski, C.A. Brown, E.P. Cook (2012) Surface roughness enhances the osseointegration of titanium headposts in non-human primates, Journal of Neuroscience Methods,  vol. 211 issue 2, 237-244. DOI: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2012.09.002. ISSN: 0165-0270.
  20. Roger D. Lewis, Jason Kennedy, Mason Andruskiewicz, Christopher A. Brown , and Sridhar Condoor, Surface Characterization of Replicate Wood Surfaces for Cleaning Studies, Journal of ASTM International, 2011, Vol. 8, No. 10 Paper ID JAI103656
  21. M.C.Moreno, C.A.Brown, P.Bouchon, Effect of food surface roughness on oil uptake by deep-fat fried products, Journal of Food Engineering 101(2010) 179-186.
  22. D.R.S.Brown, C.A.Brown Investigation of the Surface Topography Differences in Native and Exotic Invertebrates in the St. Lawrence River, Scanning 32 (2010) 250-255.
  23. J. Berglund, C. Agunwamba, B. Powers, C. A. Brown, B.-G. Rosén, On Discovering Relevant Scales in Surface Roughness Measurement-An Evaluation of a Band-Pass Method, Scanning 32 (2010) 244-249.
  24. M.C.Moreno, P.Bouchon, C.A.Brown, Evaluating the ability of different characterization parameters to describe the surface of fried foods, Scanning 32 (2010) 212-218.
  25. Berglund, C.A. Brown, B.-G. Rosen, N. Bay, Milled Die Steel Surface Roughness Correlation with Steel Sheet Friction, CIRP Annals Manufacturing Technology 59/1 (2010) 577-580.
  26. G.J.Cantor, C.A.Brown, Scale-based correlations of relative areas with fracture of chocolate, Wear, 2009, v266/5-6, 609-612. doi:10.1016/j.wear.2008.04.069 
  27. Stemp, W.J., B.E. Childs, S. Vionnet, and C.A. Brown, Quantification and Discrimination of Lithic Use-wear: Surface Profile Measurements and Length-scale Fractal Analysis. Archaeometry, 51, 3 (2009) 366-382.
  28. Stemp, W.J., B.E. Childs, S. Vionnet, and C.A. Brown, 2008 The Quantification of Microwear on Chipped Stone Tools: Assessing the Effectiveness of Root Mean Square Roughness (Rq). Lithic Technology, 2008, 33, 2: 173 -189.
  29. O. Karabelchtchikova, C. A. Brown and R. D. Sisson, Jr 2007, Effect of surface roughness on kinetics of mass transfer during gas carburizing, International Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering 2007 V1/ 4 pp. 164-170. Same article: O. Karabelchtchikova, Chr. A. Brown, R.D. Sisson, Jr., “Effect of surface roughness on the kinetics of mass transfer during gas carburizing”, HTM Journal of Heat Treatment and Materials, 63 (2008) 5, (formerly HTM Z. Werkst, Warmebeh, Fertigung), pp. 257-264.
  30. J. Kummailil, D. J. Geiger, R. S. Hahn, C.A. Brown, “Measurement and Analysis of Forces in Diamond Roll Dressing,” J. for Manufacturing Processes, v8n2 (2006) 101-111.
  31. Stemp, W.J., B.E. Childs, C.A. Brown, and S. Vionnet 2006    Variable Length-scale Documentation of Stone Tool Microtopography to Determine Use. SAS  Bulletin: Newsletter of the Society for Archaeological Sciences 29,   4: 17-21.
  32. Ray J. Emerson IV, Torbjorn S. Bergstrom, Yatao Liu, Ernesto R. Soto, Christopher A. Brown, W. Grant McGimpsey, and Terri A. Camesano,  “Microscale Correlation between Surface Chemistry, Texture, and the Adhesive Strength of Staphylococcus epidermidis,” Langmuir; 2006; 22(26) pp 11311 – 11321; DOI: 10.1021/la061984u
  33. C.A.Brown “Teaching Axiomatic Design to Engineers – Theory, Applications, and Software,” SME Journal of Manufacturing Systems, v24 n3 2005, 186-195.
  34. P. Narayan, B. Hancock, R. Hamel, T.S. Bergstrom, C.A.Brown, “Using fractal analysis to differentiate the surface topography of various pharmaceutical excipient compacts” Materials Science & Engineering, A: Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processing (2006), 430(1-2), 79-89.
  35. Robert S. Scott, Peter S. Ungar, Torbjorn S. Bergstrom, Christopher A. Brown, Ben Childs, Mark F. Teaford, Alan Walker, Dental microwear texture analysis,  Journal of Human Evolution, 51 (2006) 339-349.
  36. Vilbett Briones, Christopher A. Brown, José M. Aguilera, “Scale-sensitive fractal analysis of the surface roughness of bloomed Chocolate” J. American Oil Chemists Society v83 n3 (2006) 193–199. http://www.aocs.org/press/jabs.asp?abs_id=3964&issue=3&yr=2006
  37. S.E.Jordan, C.A.Brown, “Comparing Texture Characterization Parameters on Their Ability to Differentiate Ground Polyethylene Ski Bases” Wear 261 (2006) 398-409.
  38. Briones, V., Brown, C. & Aguilera, J.M., “Effect of surface topography on color and gloss of chocolate samples. Journal of Food Engineering v77/4 (2006) 776-783.
  39. R.J. Hocken, N. Chakraborty, C. Brown, “Optical Metrology of Surfaces,” Annals of the CIRP 54/2 (2005) 705-719.
  40. Roberto Quevedo, Christopher Brown, Pedro Bouchon and José M. Aguilera, “Surface roughness during storage of chocolate: Fractal analysis and possible mechanisms” J. American Oil Chemists Society, June (2005) 457-462.
  41. Robert S. Scott, Peter S. Ungar, Torbjorn S. Bergstrom, Christopher A. Brown, Frederick E. Grine, Mark F. Teaford, Alan Walker, “Dental microwear texture analysis within-species diet variability in fossil hominins,” Nature vol 436/4 (2005) 693-695.
  42. John Kummailil, Carmine Sammarco, David Skinner, Christopher A. Brown, Kevin Rong, Effect of Select LENS™ Processing Parameters on the Deposition of Ti-6Al-4V, Journal of Manufacturing  Processes  7/1 (2005) 42-50.
  43. S. Kohles, M. B. Clark, C.A.Brown, J. Kenealy, “Direct Assessment of Profilometric Roughness Variability from Typical Implant Surface Types,” The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, v19/4 (2004) 510-515.
  44. Peter S. Ungar, Christopher A. Brown, Torbjorn S. Bergstrom, Alan Walker, “Quantification of dental microwear by tandem scanning confocal microscopy and scale-sensitive fractal analyses,” Scanning 25 (2003) 185-193.
  45. G.A. McRae, M.A. Maguire, C.A. Jeffrey, D.A. Guzonas, C.A. Brown, “Atomic Force Microscopy of Fractal Anodic Oxides on Zr-2.5Nb” J of Applied Surface Science.191/1-4 (2002) 94-105.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(02)00165-4
  46. F. Pedreschi, J.M.Aguilera, C.A.Brown, “Characterization of the surface properties of chocolate using scale-sensitive fractal analysis,” International Journal of Food Properties, 5/3 (2002) 523-535.
  47. Bi Zang, X. Liu, C.A.Brown, T.S.Bergstrom, “Microgrinding of Nanostructured Material Coatings,” Annals of the CIRP 51/1 (2002) 251-254.
  48. K. Articus, C.A. Brown, and K.P. Wilhelm, “Scale-sensitive fractal analysis using the patchwork method for the assessment of skin roughness,” Skin Research and Technology, 7 (2001) 164-167.
  49. C.A. Brown and S. Siegmann, “Fundamental scales of adhesion and area-scale fractal analysis,” International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 41 (2001) 1927-1933.
  50. T.S. Bergstrom and C.A. Brown, “Interaction between Horizontal Scanning Instruments and Surfaces,” International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 41 (2001) 1995-2000.
  51. C.A. Brown, “Issues in modeling machined surface textures,” Machining Science and Technology 4/3 (2000) 539-546.
  52. L. DeChiffre, P. Lonardo, H. Trumphold, D.A  Lucca, G. Goch, C.A. Brown, J. Raja, H.N. Hansen, “Quantitative Characterization of Surface Texture,” Annals of the CIRP, 49/2 (2000) 635-652.
  53. Franco Pedreschi, José M. Aguilera, C.A. Brown, “Quantitative characterization of food surfaces using scale-sensitive fractal analysis,” Journal of Food Process Engineering, 23/2 (2000) 127-143.
  54. F.E. Kennedy, C.A. Brown, J. Kolodny, B.M. Sheldon, “Fractal analysis of hard disk surface roughness and correlation with static and low-speed friction,” ASME Journal of Tribology, 121/4 (1999) 968-974.
  55. C.A. Brown, W.A. Johnsen, K.M. Hult, “Scale-sensitivity, Fractal Analysis and Simulations,” International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacturing, 38/5-6 (1998) 633-637.
  56. A.J. Terry, C.A. Brown, “A comparison of topographic characterization parameters in grinding,” Annals of the CIRP, 46/1 (1997) 479-500.
  57. S. Vaseekaran, C.A. Brown, “Single discharge, spark erosion in TiB2 and zinc, Part I: Experimental,”             
  58. C.A. Brown, W.A. Johnsen, R.M. Butland, “Scale-sensitive fractal analysis of turned surfaces,” Annals of the CIRP, 45/1 (1996) 515-518.
  59. C.A. Brown, A.H. Hoffman, R.K. Heinzmann, “Loss of Control in Alpine Skiing and Subsequent Trajectories,” Skiing Trauma and Safety: Tenth Volume, ASTM STP 1266, C.D. Mote, Jr., et al. eds., ASTM, Philadelphia (1996)186-195.
  60. J.D. Webster, C.A. Brown, “Computer Simulation of the Loads on the ACL during Backwards Falls Based on an Open Kinematic Chain Model,” Skiing Trauma and Safety: Tenth Volume, ASTM STP 1266, C.D. Mote, Jr., et al. eds., ASTM, Philadelphia (1996) 254-269.
  61. D.J. Whitehouse, D.K. Bowen, V.C. Venkatesh, P. Leonardo, and C.A. Brown, “Gloss and Surface Topography,” Annals of the CIRP, 2 (1994) 1-9.
  62. C.A. Brown, “A Method for Concurrent Engineering Design of Chaotic Surface Topographies,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 44 (1994) 337-344.
  63. C.A. Brown, B. Meacham, “Tiling Strategies in the Patchwork Method and the Determination of Scale-Area Relations,” Fractals, 2/3 (1994) 433-436.
  64. P.D. Charles, C.A. Brown, “The Patchwork  Method and Image Processing,” Fractals, 2/3 (1994) 169-171.
  65. P.D. Charles, C.A. Brown, W.A. Johnsen, “Inverse Patchwork Transform,” Fractals, 2/3 (1994) 165-167.
  66. W.A. Johnsen, C.A. Brown, “Comparison of Several Methods for Calculating Fractal-Based Topographic Characterization Parameters,” Fractals, 2/3 (1994) 437-440.
  67. C.A. Brown, “Concurrent Design of Engineering Surfaces Using Patchwork Analysis,” Fractals, 2/3 (1994)  423-42.
  68. E.M. Shipulski, C.A. Brown, “A Scale-Based Model of Reflectivity,” Fractals, 2/3 (1994) 413-416.
  69. H.Gan, P.L.Levin, C.A.Brown, Modeling and analysis of the electric field for a canonical problem in EDM, Compel-The International  Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering 12/1 (1993) 1-19
  70. C.A. Brown, P.D. Charles, W.A. Johnsen, S. Chesters, “Fractal Analysis of Topographic Data by the Patchwork Method,” Wear, 161 (1993) 61-67.
  71. C.A. Brown, “Surface Roughness Characterization,” OberflachenWerkstoffe, 34/12 (1993) 8-11.
  72. C.A. Brown, G. Savary, “Describing Ground Surface Texture using Contact Profilometry and Fractal Analysis” Wear, 141 (1991) 211-226.
  73. D.F. Dauw, C.A. Brown, J.P. van Griethuysen, and J.F.L.M. Albert,  “Surface Topography Investigations by Fractal Analysis of Spark Eroded Electrically Conductive Ceramics,” Annals of the CIRP, 39/1 (1990) 161-165.
  74. C.A. Brown, F. Dupont, B. Senior, “Machined Surface Flaws on the High Strength Aluminum Alloys 2024 and 7075,” Materials Science and Engineering, A118 (1989) 53-58.
  75. C.A. Brown, M.K. Surappa, “Machinability of an Aluminium-Graphite Composite,” Materials Science and Engineering A, 102 (1988) 31-37.
  76. C.A. Brown, F. Dupont, B. Ilschner, “Microstructure and Microhardness in the Superficial Layers Deformed Machining 7075 Aluminium Alloy” Z. Metallkunde, B79 H2 (1988) 74-80.
  77. C.A. Brown, “Metallographic Analysis of Strain Patterns in Machining Chips,” Metallography, 20 (1987) 465-483.
  78. C.A. Brown, E. El Batawi, F. Dupont and B. Ilschner, “Microstructural Analysis of Machined and Fatigued Surfaces in 2024 Al,” Microstructural Science, 15 (1987) 383-392.
  79. C.A. Brown, F. Dupont, E. El Batawi, “Preparation of TEM Specimens Parallel and Perpendicular to Machined Surfaces in 7075 and 2024 Al,” Practical Metallography, 23 (1986) 493-501.
  80. S.W. Hejmej, C.A. Brown, “Influence on Low Temperature Thermo-Mechanical Treatment on some Properties of High Alloy Tool Steels,” Journal of Engineering for Industry, Trans. ASME, 107 (1985) 119-126.
  81. M. Boreiko, A. Bally, F. Bonjour, C.A. Brown, “Modeling Forces on the ACL during Backward Falls while Skiing,” Skiing Trauma and Safety: Seventh International Symposium, ASTM STP 1022, R.J. Johnson, C.D. Mote, Jr., M. Binet, eds., ASTM, Philadelphia (1989) 267-276 .
  82. C.A. Brown, J.O. Outwater, “On the Skiability of Snow,” Skiing Trauma and Safety: Seventh International Symposium, ASTM STP 1022, R.J. Johnson, C.D. Mote, Jr., M. Binet, eds., ASTM, Philadelphia (1989) 329-336.
  83. G.D. Donald, D. Seligson, C.A. Brown, “Fatigue of Ball Joints for External Fixtures,” Corrosion and Degradation of Implant Materials: Second Symposium, ASTM STP 859,  Fraker and Griffin, eds., Philadelphia (1985) 160-167.
  84. C.A. Brown, C.F. Ettlinger, “A Method for Improvement of Retention Characteristics in Alpine Ski Bindings,” Skiing Trauma and Safety: Fifth International Symposium, ASTM STP 860, Johnson and Mote, eds., Philadelphia (1985) 224-237.
  85. D.K. Lieu, C.D. Mote, Jr., C.A. Brown, C.F. Ettlinger, “Ski Binding Function in Recreational and Competitive Skiing,” Skiing Trauma and Safety: Fourth International Symposium, Hauser, Karlsson and Magi, eds., Munich (1982) 136-152.
  86. C.A. Brown, “A Practical Method for Estimating Machining Forces from Toolchip Contact Area,” Annals CIRP, 32/1 (1983) 91-95.

Conference Proceedings

  1. Vickery, A.R., Rauch, E., Rojas, R.A. and Brown, C.A., 2019. Smart Data Analytics in SME Manufacturing–an Axiomatic Design based Conceptual Framework. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 301, p. 00018). EDP Sciences.
  2. Brown, C.A. and Rauch, E., 2019. Axiomatic Design for Creativity, Sustainability, and Industry 4.0. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 301, p. 00016). EDP Sciences.
  3. Tauber, M., Gallmetzer, A., Rauch, E., Brown, C.A. and Matt, D.T., 2019. Concept Design of a Digital Shop Floor Information System for Assembly Operators in Machine Industry. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 301, p. 00017). EDP Sciences.
  4. Vickery, A., Rausch, E. and Brown, C.A., 2018, September. Deriving Functional Requirements for Industry 4.0 from Industry’s Assessment of Needs. In Transdisciplinary Engineering Methods for Social Innovation of Industry 4.0: Proceedings of the 25th ISPE Inc. International Conference on Transdisciplinary Engineering, July 3–6, 2018 (Vol. 7, p. 23). IOS Press.
  5. Egger, G., Rauch, E., Matt, D.T. and Brown, C.A., 2017. (Re-) Design of a Demonstration Model for a Flexible and Decentralized Cyber-Physical Production System (CPPS). In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 127, p. 01016). EDP Sciences.
  6. Meirose L, Dixon B, Brown CA (2018) Multiscale Analysis of the Effects of DEM, Resolution on Fractal Complexity and Subsequent Flow Direction, Accumulation and Stream Definition, American Association of Geographers April 10–14, 2018.
  7. Brown, C.A. and Henley, R., 2016. Metrics for Developing Functional Requirements and Selecting Design Parameters in Axiomatic Design. Procedia CIRP, 53, pp.113-118.
  8. Henley, R. and Brown, C.A., 2016. Axiomatic Design Applied to Play Calling in American Football. Procedia CIRP, 53, pp.206-212.
  9. Bartkowiak, T., Hyde, J. and Brown, C.A., 2016. Multi-scale curvature tensor analysis of surfaces created by micro-EDM and functional correlations with discharge energy. In 5th International Conference on Surface Metrology, At Poznan University of Technology, Poznan, Poland.
  10. Madura and C.A.Brown (2015) Protecting the ACL in Alpine skiing with load-limiting binding plates, Science and Skiing VI. E. Muller, J. Kroll, S. Lindinger, J. Pfusterschmied, T. Stoggl, editors 2:200-208.
  11. M. Madura and C.A. Brown, Axiomatic Design of Bindings and Plates that Can Protect the ACL in Alpine Skiing and Reduce the Likelihood of Inadvertent Release. International Society for Skiing Safety, ASTM STP, presented 2013, accepted 2014, published 2015.
  12. Colin M. Burns, Christopher A. Brown, FORM AND OUTLIER REMOVAL BY MODAL FILTERING OF CONFOCAL MEASUREMENTS OF LASER-SINTERED ADDITIVE-MANURACTURED SURFACES, 29th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Precision Engineering, November 9-14, 2014
  13. A.Brown, Axiomatic design of manufacturing processes considering coupling, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Axiomatic Design, Campus de Caprica, Portugal September 2014.
  14. Gleason, M. A.; Lemoine, A.; Brown, C. A. Morgan, C. J., Multi-Scale Calculation of Curvatures from an Aspheric Lens Profile Using Heron’s Formula, ASPE/ASPEN Summer Topical Meeting, Manufacture and Metrology of Freeform and Off-Axis Aspheric Surfaces, June 26 – 27, 2014, Kohala Coast, Hawaii.
  15. Cadet, M.A.Gleason, A.C.Lemone, S.P. Kordel, J.M. Hyde, J. Montgomery, C.A. Brown, Multi-scale geometric analyses and the metrology of surfaces created by micro-EDM, Proceedings of the 14th Euspen Conference, Dubrovnik, June 2014
  16. Yuqi Zeng, Kaixi Wang, Brad C. Mello, Zhijie Wang and Christopher A. Brown, MULTI-SCALE EVALUATIONS OF THE ROUGHNESS OF SURFACES MAKE BY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, ASPE Abstract: 3953, 2014 ASPE Spring Topical Meeting, Dimensional Accuracy and Surface Finish in Additive Manufacturing, April 13-16, 2014, University of California – Berkeley
  17. , S.P. Kordell, A. Lemoine, C.A. Brown, Profile Curvatures by Heron’s Formula as a Function of Scale and Position on an Edge Rounded by Mass Finishing, 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (14th ICMPES), 2013.06.17 ~ 2013.06.21 Taipei, Taiwan, paper TS4-01, 0022
  18. Gleason, M. A.; Brown, C. A., Moore, J. Z.; Shih, A. J Characterizing Radii on the Tips of Biopsy Needles, Structured and Freeform Surfaces, 2011 Spring Topical Meeting, March 6 to 8, 2011, University of North Carolina at Charlotte Campus, Charlotte, North Carolina, American Society for Precision Engineering, Raleigh, 2011 ISBN 978-1-887706-57-5
  19. A.Brown, Axiomatic design applied to a practical example of the integrity of shaft surfaces for rotating lip seals, 1st CIRP Conference on Surface Integrity (CSI), Bremen Germany January 30 – February 1 2012, Procedia Engineering 19 (2011) 53–59.
  20. Madura J. M., T. Lufkin and C. A. Brown, (2012) Calculated descent times for different radii in ski racing, Science and Skiing V, Müller, Erich; Lindinger, Stefan; Stöggl, Thomas; eds.  Meyer and Meyer proceedings of the Fifth International Congress on Science and Skiing, St. Christoph am Arlberg, Tyrol, Austria, December 2010.p 263-271.
  21. Brown C. A. and R. LeMaster, Rotations, (2012) 3D equilibrium, and force-aft torques in alpine skiing, Science and Skiing V, Müller, Erich; Lindinger, Stefan; Stöggl, Thomas; eds.  Meyer and Meyer proceedings of the Fifth International Congress on Science and Skiing, St. Christoph am Arlberg, Tyrol, Austria, December 2010. p94-103
  22. Gleason, M. A.; Brown, C. A.; and Moore, J. Z.; Shih, A. J. , Characterizing Radii on the Tips of Biopsy Needles, Proceedings, ASPE 2011 Spring Topical Meeting Structured and Freeform Surfaces, March 2011, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, American Society for Precision Engineers, Rayleigh, NC, p161
  23. A. Brown, Decomposition and Prioritization in Engineering Design, Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Axiomatic Design (ICAD 2011), KAIST, Daejeon, Korea, Mary Kathryn Thompson (Ed.) March 30-31st, 2011. ISBN 978-89-89693-30-7
  24. A. Brown, Axiomatic Design for Understanding Manufacturing Engineering as a Science, Interdisciplinary Design: Proceedings of the 21st CIRP Design Conference. Mary Kathryn Thompson (Ed.). Daejeon: KAIST, 2011. P173-175. ISBN 978-89-89693-29-1.
  25. A. Brown, Approaching Design as a Scientific Discipline, Keynote address, Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design in Civil and Environmental Engineering. Mary Kathryn Thompson (Ed.) p5-10. Daejeon:KAIST, 2011. ISBN 978-89-89693-31-4.
  26. Rima Ghemraoui-Lagord, Luc Mathieu, Christopher A. Brown Defining Safety objectives during Product Design, Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Axiomatic Design (ICAD 2011), KAIST, Daejeon, Korea, Mary Kathryn Thompson (Ed.), March 30-31st, 2011. ISBN 978-89-89693-30-7
  27. C. Atlin, T. Huynh, B. Powers, C.A.Brown, S. Wang, J.S.Zhang, Assessing Surface Roughness for Correlation with Particulate Deposition, IAQVEC2010 Proceedings, Syracuse University, 223-224.
  28. Powers, B.M., Cohen, D.K., O’Hearn, J., Brown, C.A. (2010) Scale-based comparison of interferometric, confocal and stylus measurements and their ability to discriminate, Proceedings Precision Interferometric Metrology, 2010 ASPE Summer Topical Meeting,  ASPE, Raleigh, 86-90.
  29. C.A.Brown, B.Powers, Design of Surface Metrology Systems, North American Manufacturing Research Conference, NAMRC 38, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario,  May 25-28, 2010.
  30. C.A.Brown, On the Importance of Scale-based Characterization for Discrimination and Correlation, International Conference on Surface Metrology, C.A.Brown, M. Massey and O.Paracha, eds.,  WPI, Worcester, MA 26-28 October 2009, p IX 12-14 (extend abstract).
  31.  D.R.S.Brown, C.A.Brown Investigation of the Surface Topography Differences in Native and Exotic Invertebrates in the St. Lawrence River, International Conference on Surface Metrology, C.A.Brown, M. Massey and O.Paracha, eds.,  WPI, Worcester, MA 26-28 October 2009, p V30-33 (extend abstract).
  32. D.R.S.Brown, C.A.Brown, On the Assessment of the Quality and Utility of Texture Measurements of Unusual Surfaces, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces, Ed Pawlus et al., Rzeszów University of Technology, July 8-10, 2009, Rzeszów, Poland, 231-236.
  33. Christopher A. Brown, Brendan M. Powers and Gregory Hesler, The Non-uniqueness of Surface Area with Respect to Scale in Roughness Characterization, Microscopical Society of Canada, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 17-19 June 2009 (extended abstract).
  34. Christopher A. Brown, Douglas R. S. Brown*, Joseph A. Feula, Gregory Hesler, Brendan M. Powers Discrimination of Surfaces using Surface Texture Measurements and Area-scale Analysis, Microscopical Society of Canada, Winnipeg, 17-19 June 2009 (extended abstract).
  35. A. Dickinson, C.A.Brown, Design and Deployment of Axiomatic Design, Proceedings of ICAD2009, The Fifth International Conference on Axiomatic Design, Campus de Caparica, March 25-27, 2009, 217-224.
  36. C.A.Brown “Modeling edge-snow interactions using machining theory”, Science and Skiing IV, Proceeding s of the Forth International Congress on Science and Skiing, E. Müller, H. Schwameder, E. Kornel, C. Raschner  ed. Meyer & Meyer Verlag, 2009.
  37. Stemp, W.J., B.E. Childs, C.A. Brown and S. Vionnet 2008, The Measurement and Differentiation of Lithic Microwear using Laser Profilometry and  Length-scale Analysis. Poster presented at the 37th International Symposium for Archaeometry, Siena, Italy.
  38. C.A.Brown, Knowledge Management and Axiomatic Design, SAE World Congress, Detroit 2007SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-1211, 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-01-1211.
  39. T. S. Vincent, I. Bar-On, C.A. Brown ,“Examination of Surface Roughness Effect on Insertion loss at Microwave Frequencies using Conventional Surface Roughness Parameters within LTCC Structures” ICIMT IMAPS/ACerS April 2007  proceedings pp 138-144.
  40. Stemp, W.J., B.E. Childs, C.A. Brown, and S. Vionnet 2006   It’s the Little Things in Life that Matter: Variable Length Scale Documentation of  Stone Tool Microtopography to Determine Use. Paper presented at the Second Archaeological Sciences of the Americas Symposium, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.
  41. Stemp, W.J., B.E. Childs, S. Vionnet, and C.A. Brown 2006     The Future of Lithic Use-wear Analysis? Surface Metrology and Laser Profilometry. Paper presented at the 46th Annual Northeastern Anthropological Association Meeting in  Albany, New York.
  42. Brown, C.A., R.S. Hahn, R.M. St. Gelais, B. Powers, D.J. Geiger, 2007, “Grinding Wheel Texture and Diamond Roll Plunge Dressing Feed-Rates,” ISAAT 2007 / SME International Grinding Conference, 2007 Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn.
  43. C.A. Brown, B.M. Powers, and T.S. Bergstrom, Uncertainty and Quality in the Measurement and Characterization of the Texture of Abrasive Media, ISAAT 2007 / SME International Grinding Conference, 2007 Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn.
  44. C.A.Brown, Knowledge Management and Axiomatic Design, SAE World Congress, Detroit 2007, paper number 2007-01-1211. doi:10.4271/2007-01-1211.
  45. Stephen A. Batzer, Robert D. Burges, Christopher A. Brown, “Axiomatic Design of Automotive Roof Structures,” SAE World Congress Detroit 2007 paper number 2007-01-0685.
  46. Olga Karabelchtchikova, Christopher A. Brown, Md. Maniruzzaman, Richard D. Sisson, Jr., Effect of surface preparation on gas carburizing performance.  2007 TMS conference.
  47. Stephen A. Batzer, Robert D. Burgess, Christopher A. Brown Axiomatic Design of Automotive Roof Structures, SAE World Congress, Detroit 2007, paper number 2007-01-0685.
  48. Stemp, W. James, Ben E. Childs, Christopher A. Brown, and Samuel Vionnet 2006    Variable Length-scale Documentation of Stone Tool Microtopography to  Determine Use. SAS  Bulletin: Newsletter of the Society for Archaeological Sciences 29,  4: 17-21.
  49. Christopher A. Brown, Benjamin E. Childs, and Torbjorn S. Bergstrom, EXPERIMENTAL METHODS USING SCALE-SENSITIVE, GEOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF SURFACE TEXTURES FOR TRIBOLOGY, STLE/ASME International Joint Tribology Conference October 23-25, 2006, San Antonio, Texas, Track 14 Emerging Technologies.
  50. C.A. Brown, Kinds of Coupling and Approaches to Deal with Them, Proceedings of ICAD2006, The fourth International Conference on Axiomatic Design, Firenze June 13-16 2006, paper 15.
  51. E. Odom, S. Beyerlein, C. A. Brown, D.Drew, L.Gallup, S.Zimmerman, J.Olberding, “Role of Axiomatic Design in Teaching Capstone Courses,” Proceedings of the 2005 American Society for Engineering Education Annual conference & Exposition 2005 ASEE, http://www.asee.org/acPapers/2005-1866_Final.pdf.
  52. C.A. Brown, “Lessons in Teaching Axiomatic Design to Engineers” SAE 2005 World Congress Detroit April 13, 2005, SAE paper SP 1956, Reliability and Robust Design in Automotive Engineering 2005-01-1523.   http://www.sae.org/servlets/productDetail?PROD_CD=2005-01-1523&PROD_TYP=PAPER
  53. C.A.Brown, Teaching Axiomatic Design to Engineers: Theory, Applications, and Software, Looking Forward: Innovations in Manufacturing Engineering Education, CIMEC (CIRP International Manufacturing Education Conference) 2005 and 3rd SME International Conference on Manufacturing Education, 2005, pp. 41-51.
  54. S.E.Jordan, T.S.Bergstrom, D.J.Geiger, C.A.Brown, Surface Metrology of Ski Base Textures, 3rd International Congress on Skiing and Science, 2004 Aspen, Colorado USA March 28 – April 2, 2004, Science and Skiing III, Erich Müller, Dave Bachacrach, Riggs Klika, Stefan Lindinger, Hermann Schwameder editors, Oxford: Meyer and Meyer Sports (2005) p 411-422.
  55. Torbjorn S. Bergstrom, Rebecca A. Hamel, John Kummailil, Amy R. Gray, Christopher A. Brown, Comparison of surface texture measurement systems, XIth International Colloquium on Surfaces, 2-3 February 2004 Chemnitz, Germany, Conference Proceedings Part I, 2004 Shaker Verlag, Aachen (ISBN 3-8322-2418-1) p 13-21.
  56. Christopher A. Brown, Rebecca Hamel, John Kummailil, Mark O’Connell,Torbjorn S. Bergstrom;”Analyzing the Accuracy of Surface Measurement Systems and Replicas 9th International Conference on the Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces, Halmstead, Sweden, 2003.
  57. J.Kummailil, D.Geiger, T. Bergstrom, V.Varbanova, C.A.Brown, Measurement Uncertainty in Scanning Instruments Due to Data Acquisition Methods, Proceedings of the American Society of Precision Engineers 2003.
  58. T.S. Bergstrom, C.A. Brown, “Scale Sensitive Fractal Analysis of Food Surfaces”, Scanning, The Journal of Scanning Microscopies, 23/2, FAMS, Inc., Mahwah, N.J. USA, pp 104-105, May/June, 2001.
  59. V. Ulcickas, I. Bar-On, C.A. Brown , “Using Area-scale Relations to Investigate Y-TZP Fractures”. Fractography of Glasses and Ceramics IV, Ceramic Transactions v 122, Proceedings of the Fourth Alfred Conference on the Fractography of Glasses and Ceramics, July 9-12, 2000 at Alfred University, Alfred, NY, James R. Varner and Geroge D. Quinn Eds. The American Ceramics Society, Westerville, OH (2001) 211-224.
  60. C.A. Brown, “Relating Surface Texture and Adhesion with Area-scale Fractal Analysis” Tech XXIV, Sharing global pressure sensitive tape innovations, proceedings, a global conference, 2-4 May, 2001 Orlando, FL, Pressure Sensitive Tape Council (2001) 49-58.
  61. C.A. Brown, “Axiomatic Design of Chaotic Components of Surface Textures,” ICAD2000, Institute for Axiomatic Design, Cambridge, Derrick Tate, ed., (2000) 106-111. http://www.axiomaticdesign.com/technology/icad/icad2000/icad2000_008.pdf  
  62. T.S. Bergstrom and C.A. Brown, “Interaction between Horizontal Scanning Instruments and Surfaces,” Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces, 8th International Conference, Huddersfield 26-28 April 2000.
  63. M.C. Malchiodi and C.A. Brown, “Area Scale Analysis for Understanding Fracture Energy,” Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces, 8th International Conference, Huddersfield 26-28 April 2000.
  64. C.A. Brown and S. Siegmann, “Fundamental Scales of Adhesion and Area-scale Fractal Analysis,” Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces, 8th International Conference, Huddersfield 26-27 April 2000.
  65. C.A. Brown and S. Siegmann, “A Method for Determining the Characteristic Scale for Adhesion for a Discrete Bonding Model on a Rough Substrate,” Proceedings of the 10th International Colloquium of Surfaces Chemnitz, Germany, 31 January-2 February 2000, M.Dietzsch and H.Trumpold, Eds., Shaker Verlag, Aachen (2000) 196-204.
  66. C.A. Brown, T.S. Bergstrom, K.A. Nucifora, “Upper Envelopes in Scale-series on Profiles,” Proceedings of the 10th International Colloquium of Surfaces Chemnitz, Germany, 31 January-2 February 2000, M.Dietzsch and H.Trumpold, Eds. , Shaker Verlag, Aachen (2000) 360-366.
  67. T.S. Bergstrom, C.A. Brown, “Anisotropic Artifacts Introduced by Horizontal Scanning Instruments in Surface Metrology” Proceedings 14th Annual Meeting The American Society for Precision Engineering, Monterey, ASPE, Raleigh (1999) 376-379.
  68. S. Siegmann, C.A. Brown, “Surface texture correlations with tensile adhesive strength of thermally sprayed coatings using area-scale fractal analysis” United Thermal Spray Conference – Proceedings E.Lugschneider, P.A.Kammer, eds., (1999) 355-359.
  69. S.D. Siegmann, C.A. Brown, “Scale-Sensitive Fractal Analysis for Understanding the Influence of Substrate Roughness in Thermal Spraying” 1st United Thermal Spray Conference – Thermal Spray: A United Forum for Scientific and Technological Advances C.C.Berndt, ed., ASM International, Materials Park, OH (1998) 665-670.
  70. S.D. Siegmann, C.A. Brown., “Investigation of Substrate Roughness in Thermal Spraying by a Scale-Sensitive 3-D Fractal Analysis Method,” 15thInternational Thermal Spray Conference – Thermal Spray: Meeting the Challenges of the 21st Century, C.Coddet, Ed., ASM International, Materials Park, OH (1998) 831-836.
  71. C.A. Brown, K.A. Nucifora, M. Luchini, T.S. Bergstrom, New Tiling and Packing Algorithms in Surface Metrology, Proceedings 14th Annual Meeting The American Society for Precision Engineering, St. Louis, ASPE, Raleigh (1998).
  72. F.E. Kennedy, C.A. Brown, J. Kolodny, and B.M. Sheldon, “Fractal Analysis of Hard Disk Surface Texture and Correlation with Start/Stop Friction,” World Tribology Conference, Mechanical Engineering Publications, Ltd., London (1997) 161.
  73. C.A. Brown, P. Hoch, “Information Content in Surface Metrology for Functional Correlations,” Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Meeting of the American Society for Precision Engineering, American Society for Precision Engineering, Raleigh (1997) 118-121.
  74. D.K. Cohen, C.A. Brown, W.A. Johnsen, P. Hoch, “An Investigation of Filtering on 3D Surface Texture Measurements Using Scale-Sensitive Fractal Analysis and PSD,” Advances in Surface Metrology, ASPE, Raleigh (1997) 30-35.
  75. C.A. Brown, W.A. Johnsen, K.M. Hult, “Scale-sensitivity, Fractal Analysis and Simulations,” 7th Int. Conf. On Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces, Dept. of Production Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Goteborg (1997) 239-243.
  76. C.A. Brown, “Scale-sensitive, Fractal Analysis for Understanding Roughness,” Surfaces in Biomaterials ’96, Minneapolis (1996) 71-76.
  77. S. Siegmann, C.A. Brown, “Investigations on the Substrate Surface Morphology for Thermal Spray Coatings.” Success of Materials by Combination, Proceedings of the 17th International SAMPE Europe Conference of the Society for the Advancement of Material Process Engineering, Basel Switzerland, May 28-30, 1996, Urs Meier and Markus A. Erath, Eds.,SAMPE Europe, Niederglatt, CH (1996) 149-158.
  78. C.A. Brown, W.A. Johnsen, K.M. Hult, B.E. Meacham, R. Butland, “Assessment of 2-D and 3-D topographic data using scale-based methods,” IX. Internationales Oberflächenkolloquium Vorträge, M. Dietzsch and H. Trumpold eds. Technische Universtät Chemnitz-Zwickau, Chemnitz (1996) 41-48.
  79. C.A. Brown, W.A. Johnsen, B.E. Meacham, R. Butland, “A discussion of fractal analysis methods of assessing surface roughness for the development of standards,” IX. Internationales Oberflächenkolloquium Poster, M. Dietzsch and H. Trumpold eds. Technische Universtät Chemnitz-Zwickau, Chemnitz, (1996) 45-55.
  80. Bar-On, C.A. Brown, W.A. Johnsen, A.M. Calomino, D.N. Brewer, “Fractal analysis of Fracture Surfaces using the Patchwork Method,” Ceramic Transactions, v.64, Third Alfred Conference on Fractography of Glasses and Ceramics, J.P.Varner, V.D.Frechette, G.D.Quinn, eds. Am. Ceramic Soc., Westerville, OH (1996) 395-408.
  81. C.A. Brown, “Technical Note: Optimizing Cost per Cut,”  Cross-Functional Management of Technology: Cases and Readings, M. Dayne Aldridge and Paul M. Swamidass, Editors, Carlisle Communications (1996) 288-295.
  82. C.A. Brown, W.A. Johnsen, R. Butland, “Scale-based analysis of ground surface roughness to support product and process design,” Supergrind 1995, Grinding and Polishing with Superabrasives, Industrial Diamond Association of America, Skyland, NC and U Conn Center for Grinding Research & Development, Storrs, CT (1995)  222-231.
  83. S.C. Colbeck, J.B. Rossacci, E.M. Shipulski, C.A. Brown, “Topography and Capillary Bonding of Wet Polyethylene Surfaces,” Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Meeting of the Adhesion Society (1995).
  84. C.A. Brown, “Scale-Area Analysis and Roughness:  A Method for Understanding the Topographic Component of Adhesive Strength,” The Adhesion Society, Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Meeting and the Symposium on Particle Adhesion, Orlando Florida 20-23 February 1993, K.M.Liechti, Ed. The Adhesion Society, Library of Congress 94-070329 (1994) 5-7.
  85. C.A. Brown, E. Michael Shipulski, “Concurrent Engineering Design of Surface Roughness using Scale-area Analysis,” ASME Production Engineering Division, PED Vol.68-1 Manufacturing Science and Engineering (1994) 155-160.
  86. C.A. Brown, “Scale-Area Relations by Fractal Analysis of Diverse Types of Topographic Data Using the Patchwork Method,” Quantitative Microscopy and Image Analysis, (1994) 105-111.
  87. D.F. Dauw, C.A. Brown, “Surface Topography Analysis of Spark Eroded Electrically Conductive Ceramics,” Surtec ’91, Berlin (1991).
  88. J.P. Valley, C.A. Brown, “Fractal Analysis of SEM Images of Silica Membrane Morphology,” Inorganic Membranes, ICIM2-91, Burggraaff, Charpin and Cot, eds. Trans Tech Publications, Brookfield (1991) 83
  89. J.P. Valley, C.A. Brown, “Characterizing the Surface and Internal Morphology of a Silica Membrane Using Fractal Analysis,” Extended Abstracts, Scaling in Disordered Materials: Fractal Structure and Dynamics, J.P. Stokes, M.O. Robbins, T.A. Witten, eds., Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh (1990) 113-115.
  90. C.A. Brown, D.F. Dauw, “Investigations of Spark Eroded Electrically Conductive Ceramics by Fractal Analysis” NORDTRIB’90, PROCEEDINGS OF THE 4TH NORDIC SYMPOSIUM ON TRIBOLOGY, LUBRICATION, FRICTION AND WEAR, Hirtshals, Denmark, J. Jakobsen, M. Klarskov, M. Eis, eds., NORDTRIB ’90, Lyngby, Denmark (1990) 159-174.
  91. C.A. Brown, D.F. Dauw, G. Savary, “Comparison of Fractal and Conventional Topographic Analysis of Electric Discharge Machined Surface Topography on Ceramics,” Surface Engineering: Current Trends and Future Prospects S.A. Meguid, ed., Elsevier Applied Science, London (1990) 39-51.
  92. C.A. Brown, G. Savary, “Fractal Aspects of Machined Surface Topography Determined by Stylus Profilometry,” Extended Abstracts, Fractal Aspects of Materials: Disordered Systems, D.A. Weitz, L.M. Sander, B.B. Mandelbrot, eds., Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh (1988) 275-277.
  93. C.A. Brown, F. Dupont and B. Ilschner, “Influence of Machining on the Microstructure and Precipitation in 7075 Al,” Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Surface Modifications (1986) 241-246.
  94. C.A. Brown, B.F. von Turkovich, “On the Force Computation in High Speed Metal Cutting,” DARPA Advanced Machining Research Semi-Annual Report (1982)

Articles in Popular Press

C.A. Brown, “Time for a New Approach in Dealing with Skiing’s Risks,” Ski Racing: The International Journal of Ski Competition, vol. XXVI, No. 13 (1994) 12-13.

Book Chapters (invited)

  1. Patrick Dallasega, Manuel Woschank, Helmut Zsifkovits, Korrakot Tippayawong and Christopher A. Brown, Requirement Analysis for the Design of Smart Logistics in SMEs p147, Chapter 5, Matt, D.T., Modrák, V. and Zsifkovits, H., 2020. Industry 4.0 for SMEs. Springer.
  2. Christopher A. Brown, Axiomatic Design for Products, Processes, and Systems p383, Chapter 13, Matt, D.T., Modrák, V. and Zsifkovits, H., 2020. Industry 4.0 for SMEs. Springer.
  3. Arcidiacono, G., Brown, C.A., Bucciarelli, L. and Melosi, F., 2016. Axiomatic Design of Production Systems for Performance Improvement: A Project Identification and Prioritization Model. In Axiomatic Design in Large Systems (pp. 251-272).
  4. Brown, C. (2013). Areal Fractal Methods, Chapter 4 Characterization of Areal Surface Texture, Leach, R ed. Springer, 129-154.
  5. Handbook of Lubrication and Tribology, Volume 2, Theory and Design, second edition, CRC Press / STLE, Chapter (1.2) on Surface Roughness (2012) http://www.crcpress.com/product/isbn/9781420069082
  6. A.Brown, “Machining of Metals,” Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, K.H.Jürgen Buschow et al. Eds., Permagon, Amsterdam (2001) 4703-4708.
  7. Erwin Rauch, Andrew R. Vickery, Christopher A. Brown and Dominik T. Matt, SME Requirements and Guidelines for the Design of Smart and Highly Adaptable Manufacturing Systems p39, Chapter 2, Matt, D.T., Modrák, V. and Zsifkovits, H., 2020. Industry 4.0 for SMEs. Springer.